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The Non-Insane Automatism Defence - 12 Dec 2015 11:01


[[html]]<img alt="Sleepwalking May be Non-insane Automatism" data-caption="Sleepwalking May be Non-insane Automatism" data-credit="pareeerica" data-credit-link="" src="" title="Sleepwalking May be Non-insane Automatism"/>In English law, a person can only be criminally liable if they have committed the actus reus element of a crime with the necessary mens rea. However, it is not enough to simply prove that the defendant undertook the acts prohibited by the actus reus of the offence as in order to invoke liability, the law requires that the criminal act be voluntary.When is an Act Involuntary?<br><br><img src="" width="274" /><br><br>In the case of Bratty <a href="">criminal lawyer miami</a> v. Attorney-General for Northern Ireland [1963], Lord Denning defined an involuntary action as an act done by the muscles without any control by the mind .. or by a person who is not conscious of what he is doing.<br><br>This presents two forms of involuntary action: nervous or involuntary responses, such as spasms or convulsions, and unconscious actions, such as sleepwalking. Such involuntary actions are the result of what the law refers to as non-insane automatism.<br><br>The infamous case <a href="">criminal defence attorneys</a> of Hill v. Baxter [1958] provides an example of involuntary response: a driver attacked by a swarm of bees and who is therefore found driving erratically was not convicted of dangerous driving as the court determined that he is no longer driving. The attack caused the driver to lose control of the vehicle due to the involuntary, and no doubt panicked, response of trying to rid himself of the bees.<br><br><img src="" width="344" /><br><br>Unconscious actions such as sleepwalking have been newsworthy on several occasions. In the so-called sleepwalker <a href="">criminal solicitors</a> killer cases of Jules Lowe and Brian Thomas, the defendants faced trial for murder after killing another person while asleep. In both cases, the defendant was found not guilty of murder.<br><br>Insanity as a Defence<br><br>While Thomas was found not guilty by the court, Lowe received a verdict of not guilty for reasons of insanity; and subsequently spent several months in a psychiatric hospital before he was discharged on the grounds that he was not a threat to the public. <iframe src="" width="640" height="480"></iframe>This is because sleepwalking may be seen by the law as a disease of the mind and thus allows a defendant to plead insanity as a defence.<br><br><img src="" width="303" /><br><br>For an insanity plea to be accepted, a defendant must be suffering from a disease of the mind causing a defect of reason that prevents him knowing either the nature and quality of his actions, or that what he did was wrong. If accepted by a jury, such a plea grants the court the power to either grant an absolute discharge, allowing the defendant to walk free, or section him under the Criminal Procedure (Insanity and Unfitness to Plead) Act 1991.<br><br>What is a Disease of the Mind?<br><br>What the law recognises as a disease of the mind was developed in R v. Kemp [1957] and refined in R v. Sullivan [1984]. In short, diseases of the mind are physical or mental diseases that affect mental functioning but do not result from external factors such as drinking one's self into a stupor or being hit over the head. This definition has caused controversy over the years, as it leads to the potential for. <iframe width="560" height="315" src="" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen></iframe>
<br><br>diabetics, amongst others, being classed as insane by the courts; as in the case of R v. Hennessy [1989].<br><br>Excepting the potential crossover in the case of sleepwalking, non-insane automatism is usually differentiated from insanity as a defence against criminal liability. It provides a means for the courts, in the name of justice, to acquit a defendant who involuntarily commits an otherwise criminal act. Although its grounds for use are severely limited, its existence as a defence provides a modicum of finesse to the usually blunt instrument of the law.<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

Spiritual And Demonic Possession: 7 Common Symptoms - 10 Dec 2015 09:01


[[html]]By Scott Petullo &amp; Stephen Petullo<br><br>Average: <br><br>Your rating: None Average: 4.3 (4 votes)<br><br>Are you or someone you know being influenced by lost souls or dark energy?<br><br>Theres a world-wide epidemic today that most people dont know much about. Its a very common occurrence, yet its misunderstood and usually overlooked.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Its called spirit possession. The Exorcist movie was an exaggeration of the phenomenon, and a depossession by a priest is only one way to deal with it. Its also known as spirit attachment and demonic possession. It happens when lost (disembodied) souls and, or dark energy interfere with or even take control of someone.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>It often occurs after the abuse of drugs or alcohol (because these substances weaken your energy field), it can occur during abuse, and some people who are highly sensitive (e.g., Britney Spears, in our opinion), are more susceptible to it than others. Even a poor diet or high levels of stress can cause sensitive people to be more of a target. Those with addictions are almost always affected by it.<br><br>Taking responsibility yourself and your situation can be the beginning of healing and protecting yourself, but it can be more difficult for some to do this due to already existing, potent interference from dark energy. Ironically, even those who want to help themselves can be persuaded, frequently beyond conscious awareness, by dark energy or lost souls to avoid seeking help. The will to improve, along with effective methods, must be present to fully heal.<br><br><object width="400" height="241"><param name="movie" value=""></param><param name="allowFullScreen" value="true"></param><param name="allowscriptaccess" value="always"></param><embed src="" type="application/x-shockwave-flash" allowscriptaccess="always" allowfullscreen="true" width="400" height="241"></embed></object><br><br>Why do lost souls or dark energy feed off of a host, you might ask? They remain earthbound and attach themselves, energetically, to those from which they can get the fix of alcohol, drugs, nicotine, food, sex, power, revenge, or whatever else they were addicted to before their physical bodies died.<br><br>As for dark energy, demons and other negative influences that interfere, their motives can be as simple as an allegiance with an evil force. In our experience, however, and contrary to scary Hollywood movies, most demons are more like bratty, misbehaving children who are more easily controlled than you may think.<br><br>By the way, long ago we didnt believe in evil or dark energy. <iframe src="" width="640" height="480"></iframe>But since doing a lot of empirical research on the subject and subsequently helping people with Spiritual Detox, we are now convinced that it does exist. There always has been and always will be polar opposites, as a natural part of your earthy existence: without darkness there cannot be light, without cold there cannot be heat, without fear there cannot be faith.<br><br>For more stubborn entities and dark energies, we offer a more extensive method of asking for spiritual help through our script (available in the Direct Your Destiny e-package), Spiritual Detox audio, or private sessions.<br><br>The following list includes signs of being influenced by dark energy or lost souls.<br><br>1) Do you or someone you know have negative emotional or physical reactions to the idea of Spiritual Detox TM (such as part of you wanting to do it and part of you not wanting to do it)?<br><br><img src="" width="319" /><br><br>2) Do you or someone you know have, physical, emotional, mental, or spiritual feelings of being blocked?<br><br>3) Do you or someone you know abuse alcohol or drugs? (The use of either allows lost souls or dark energy to influence you far more easily.)<br><br>4) Did you or someone you know have a sudden onset of alcohol or drug abuse, or a sudden onset of a desire to smoke cigarettes, overeat, or engage in some other addictive, unhealthy behavior?<br><br>5) Do you or someone you know have distinct personality changes while under the influence?<br><br>6) Do you or someone you know sense an unexplainable presence in your/their home or office (sometimes referred to as a ghost)? Its common to sense the presence when falling asleep or waking up in the middle of the night.<br><br>7) Did you or someone you know have sudden and unexplainable strife and conflict with a partner, family member, or friend?<br><br><img src="" width="272" /><br><br>8) Do you or someone you know have an addiction to sex, a sudden or unexplainable onset of sadness, depression, reckless behavior, poor memory and concentration, change in personality, feelings of being followed or feeling drained, schizophrenia, physical problems, recurring dreams or nightmares, anger, guilt or anxiety, or hear inner voices (especially with negative messages)?<br><br>If you answered yes to any of these questions, its likely you or someone you know is being influenced by lost souls and, or dark energy. But do not be afraid.<br><br>The subjects of entity attachment and spirit possession may seem frightening, but theres really nothing to fear. It is simply a matter of energy that needs to be firmly directed to the proper place and knowing how to protect yourself.<br><br>One way to protect yourself is to avoid drugs and excess alcohol, visualize a white light of protection around you often, and ask for help from God, your guides, or angels of the Light. Simply state your request for help out loud.<br><br><img src="" width="269" /><br><br>Copyright Stephen Petullo, Scott Petullo<br><br>Author's Bio:<br><br>Scott Petullo and Stephen Petullo offer vital, yet sensible and practical spiritual guidance and tools, including <a href="">penalties for drinking and driving</a> their Spiritual Detox and Let Go MP3 meditation audios. Get their free report: 13 Spiritual and New Age Myths and 13 Other Spiritual Laws Besides the Law of Attraction<br><br>[[/html]] - Comments: 0

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